Article Reprints

Thermal Processing for Gear Solutions



Jun 2019

Just as with 3D printing, powder metal technology is struggling to find its way, while designers have looked for more efficient methods to produce gears and more complex shapes.

May 2019

Carburizing, case hardening and the general history of thermal processing.  How did we get where we are today.

Apr 2019

Process control is vital to heat treating

Mar 2019

The big gamble:  Electric vehicles or bust

Feb 2019

Carburizing today:  The secrets to predicting success

Jan 2019

Allocating space for case hardening furnaces


  • 2018 Articles

    Sep/Oct 2018

    Lets hear it for welding

    Jul/Aug 2018

    Remembering old-school lab work is a blast from the past

    May/June 2018

    Why Heat Treating Furnaces Look The Way They Do (Part 2)

    March/April 2018

    Why Heat Treating Furnaces Look The Way They Do (Part 1)

    Jan/Feb 2018

    (Hot Seat column) - Carbon: Essential Element or Too Much of a Good Thing

    Jan/Feb 2018

    (Technical article) - Cryogenic Process and Application to Ferrous Alloy

  • 2017 Articles

    Sept/Oct 2017

    Atmosphere and vacuum heat treating will require specific equipment-operating and performance options.

    May/June 2017

    Material and Process Options for Vehicle Weight Reduction Are Available to Automobile Designers and Heat Treaters.

    March/April 2017

    Ingenuity Can Often Negate Murphy's Law.

    January/February 2017

    Heating element materials should beconsidered to achieve reliable performance for applications.

  • 2016 Articles

    Fall/Winter 2016

    Furnace Doors:  For proper seal and functionality, doors are the furnace's most critical component.

    Spring/Summer 2016

    Stainless Steels:  Understanding the properties, fatigue limits, and designations of stainless steels used in heat treatment processes can be helpful in selecting the right one for specific applications.

  • 2015 Articles

    Fall/Winter 2015

    While LPC with electric heating and HPGQ have won over many auto OEMs, oil LPC, oil-marquenching, and heating with natural gas can offer an effective, lower cost alternative for neutral hardening and carburizing. 

    Spring/Summer 2015

    Intensive quenching calls for very high cooling rates.  (Part II)

  • 2014 Articles

    Fall/Winter 2014

    Intensive quenching calls for very high cooling rates.  (Part I)

    Spring/Summer 2014

    Each furnace type requires a totally different maintenance mindset.

ASM International

Used with permission of ASM International

  • 2018 Articles

    September 2018

    Pros and Cons of Various Automotive Materials and Hardening Pocesses

Gear Solutions - Your Resource for Machines, Services and Training for the Gear Industry

  • 2015 Articles


    January 2015

    Heat treating is all about using the most cost-effective process.

    February 2015

    Vacuum pumps and nitrogen purge can equally achieve low ppm oxygen levels. However, pumps are slow to remove water vapor while an inert gas purge is time consuming.

    March 2015

    Low-pressure carburizing (LPC) furnaces employ strategically positioned jets, and atmosphere furnaces must use the proper fan. However, all fans are not equally able to handle the task.

    April 2015

    Heat treating—no matter the process—is an energy hog where three energy sources or utilities directly find application: natural gas, electricity and fuel oil.

    May 2015

    This month's column will focus on heat treating in the United States—where we have been and where we are going.

    June 2015

    Critical and non-critical aspects of achieving expected results in heat treating processes—Endo carburizing.

    This month's column will focus on heat treating in the United States—where we have been and where we are going.

    July 2015

    Recent years have shown that metal alternatives - ceramics and ceramic composites - are achieving real-world applications in the automotive and aviation industries, and the potential for lightweight drivetrain applications can't be far behind.

    August 2015

    Copper brazing, in theory, is not a difficult process. However, proper braze joint fit-up, mesh belt furnaces using disassociated ammonia, and vacuum furnaces have their own important considerations.

    September 2015

    When troubleshooting heat treating furnaces and the processes they manage, two elements such as maintenance and the furnace’s historical results can be influential factors.

    October 2015

    When troubleshooting heat treating furnaces and the processes they manage, two elements such as maintenance and the furnace’s historical results can be influential factors.

    December 2015

    Convection Phase:  Velocity, boundary layer, and turbulence in quenching have implications on heat transfer in batch and continuous furnaces.

  • 2014 Articles


    January 2014

    From smaller cold formed steel, gears can be cold pressed into the final shape and size, teeth and all.

    February 2014

    Like any problem, a heat treating difficulty must be dissected into smaller parts.

    March 2014

    Heat treating is all about using the most cost-effective process.

    April 2014

    Equipment hardware with nitrogen/methanol carburizing atmosphere and the necessary utility configurations.

    May 2014

    An accurate comparison between LPC/HPGQ and endo atmosphere carburizing cell.

    June 2014

    Over the years, FNC and gas nitriding have been used in applications where reduced surface friction is a requirement, such as gears and brake motors.

    July 2014

    Heat treating, carburizing and furnaces: how and why we arrived where we are today.

    August 2014

    An armchair guide for predicting results for LPC and atmosphere carburizing.

    September 2014

    Metallurgical and heat treat forensics play an important part in determining how and why parts fail.

    October 2014

    Achieving modernization in carburizing and quenching requires an overhaul of load sizes and material handling.

    December 2014

    How one morning car ride turned into an ethical dilemma over Jeep, and why heat-treating equipment suppliers are unclear as to what the future may hold.

  • 2013 Articles

    January 2013

    Gas and electricity are both viable energy sources for heating furnaces, but there are economic and energetic reasons to pick one over the other.

    February 2013

    As manufacturers of furnaces, we are obligated to make sure that all parties involved with installation
    are trained in the proper operating procedures.

    March 2013

    How to perfectly heat treat the gear that is smaller, thinner, finer pitch, with a ton of residual stress from machining and the ability to satisfy the cost constraints of a commercial orOEM heat treathas been the topic of conversation around the world.

    April 2013

    You can't open a technical journal or online magazine without someone opining about carburizing, quenching, nitriding, distortion control, and all of the pre- and post-processing required for a successful outcome.
    But one very important process has a major impact on that success:
    Machining, or more specifically, the tools that make removing metal.

    May 2013

    A discussion of the 3D heat-treatment process called Direct Metal Laser Sintering.

    June 2013

    One of the requirements depending on a gear's mass when HPGQ is considered is the hardenability of the steel.

    July 2013

    Each part of the heat treat process requires the parts to be arranged for maximum productivity and quality.

    August 2013

    Three barriers prevent the state of perfectly achieved heat treat evolution: material handling, energy source, and capital cost.

    September 2013

    One of the most critical functions of heat treating doesn't involve heat at all. Hardening ferrous alloys concerns the removal of heat at very precise schedules and heat transfer rates.

    October 2013

    Nissan has announced that it will offer a driverless car in 2021. There is no doubt others are working on similar technology. Contributing to the effort, the European Union is debating implementing speed limit signs that signal cars to brake if they detect an offender. Similar ideas are being discussed in the U.S.

    December 2013

    Powder metal gears can be carburized and quenched, with the alloy and size dictating the quenching process.

  • 2012 Articles

    January 2012

    Catalytic Gas Nitriding, a process available in Russia for decades that has migrated to the United States, stands to alter our thinking of nitriding as a case hardening process.

    February 2012

    Other nitriding processes have been around for many years, but only the plasma process can come close to matching CGN's speed with equal or better controllability.

    March 2012

    For heat-treating applications such as carburizing and quenching gears, pusher furnaces by far outpace drivetrain carburizing when compared to all other furnace types.

    April 2012

    Pusher furnaces have many advantages over others, as long as the handling system moving trays through the hot zone is properly designed. Remember the KISS principle!

    May 2012

    According to the author, for 24/7/365 carburizing compared to nitrogen methanol, generator created endo gas is a no-brainer.

    June 2012

    Shallow case hardening in mesh belt and casst link belt furnaces is acceptable for small gears, shafts, screws and nuts when fixturing is not required.

    July 2012

    With 91 percent of survey respondents saying they dunk quench in oil, why does LPC continue to be conducted in graphite lined furnaces?

    August 2012

    If you're considering bringing heat-treating in-house, first study existing outsource processes so transition is seamless.

    September 2012

    Orders are increasing for pusher furnaces for users planning to employ oil press quenching to control distortion.

    October 2012

    Nitriding continues to gain market share as a case hardening process.

    December 2012

    Common methods and processes for heat-treating equipment.

  • 2011 Articles

    January 2011

    In applying heat-treat theory, understanding the reality of surface hardening equipment and processes is critical. Read on for important insights.>

    February 2011

    When ionitriding was introduced to the United States, it was expected to be the eighth wonder of the heat-treating world. Here's the inside story.

    March 2011

    Carburizing vs. nitriding—where does the future lie? An in-depth examination of each reveals the pros and cons, allowing you to choose the right process for your desired goal.

    April 2011

    In response to an increased interest in high-pressure gas quenching (HPGQ), the author addresses the issue in this month's installment.

    May 2011

    When considering vacuum carburizing you should audit your post heat-treat processing cost to determine if the upfront capital, operating, and maintenance costs are worth it.

    June 2011

    In this installment of his column the author presents a discussion of the equipment used in the endo and low pressure carburizing processes.

    July 2011

    The author presents a comparison of the physical relationship between the process mechanics and the furnace design in transporting carburizing media to the target.

    August 2011

    Heat treating has come a long way, but the heat treater, component manufacturer, and furnace supplier must still choose the most cost effective and application-appropriate process.

    September 2011

    Heat treaters of old were onto something, since they knew that the way to reduce distortion in steel was to heat and cool in steps. Read about how salt processing can save the day!

    October 2011

    Thinking of bringing your heat-treat process in-house? It could save time and make you more competitive, but there are many factors to consider first.

    December 2011

    What we need is a nitriding process combining the speed and control of plasma, but without the degree of difficulty. According to the author, stay tuned.

Industrial Heating Magazine

Case Hardening:  Comparing HPGQ, Oil and Salt   January 2016

Intergranular Oxidation:  Scourge or Does It Really Matter?  April 2014

First IQ Batch Furnace Certified to Carburize Wind Turbine Gears January 2009

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